Forms and characteristics of severe myopia
Under certain circumstances, myopia can take on other forms and manifestations in the clinical picture. In the following, we explain to you which disease processes can arise with simple myopia and which treatment options are available.
Pathological myopia - pathological nearsightedness
In the case of pathological myopia, distant vision is blurred, also called pathological myopia . It is considered a rare and severe form of myopia. Visual aids such as glasses or contact lenses can be used to easily compensate for such poor eyesight. In the long term, however, complications are possible, because the constant stretching of the choroid and the retina makes the tissue thinner and thinner and fine cracks can arise. This, in turn, leads to poor blood flow to the retina and also worsens eyesight.
Consequences of pathological myopia
- Thin and unstable retina
- Formation of holes and scar tissue in the retina
- Retinal detachment
- Bulging of the dermis in the back of the eye
Macular degeneration caused by myopia
Although rarely, it is possible that high myopia can lead to macular degeneration . The long eyeball, which is characteristic of nearsightedness, exerts pulling force on the retina. In the long term, this leads to a thinner choroid which lies under the macula. The resulting disruption of the blood supply can cause macular degeneration .
Astigmatism is a curvature of the cornea inside the eye and often occurs in combination with poor eyesight, such as myopia. A healthy eye has a cornea with a constant curvature, like a sphere. With astigmatism, the cornea is uneven. The light entering the eye is not focused on one point on the retina, but on several and causes blurred or distorted vision. Myopia astigmatism is myopia in combination with a curvature of the cornea, which leads to a loss of vision.
Astigmatism myopia can be treated with modern glasses and contact lenses. Depending on the findings, laser treatment is also possible.
Myopia is considered a cataract symptom. Cataracts are not considered a disease, but an age-related change in the eye. If myopia develops or worsens in the second half of life, this is usually an indication of clouding of the lens. A creeping process that the person concerned does not notice immediately. If the cataract remains untreated, the eyesight will be considerably impaired. Complete blindness is then possible. We recommend having your eyes examined by an ophthalmologist at least once a year from the age of 50. A cataract treatment can also treat the myopia.
Myopia retinal detachment
Retinal detachment is possible as a result of high myopia. The excessively long eyeball makes the retinal tissue thinner. The result is degeneration at the retinal edge . Accordingly, severe myopia and possible retinal detachment are connected.
The sudden detachment of the retina is noticed by the person affected by sudden flashes of lightning, soot rain and shadows in the field of vision. In this case, immediate ophthalmological treatment is necessary in order to avoid complete blindness.
High myopia should be regularly monitored by an ophthalmologist. An impending retinal detachment can be recognized in good time and treated preventively with a laser. If the detachment could not be prevented in advance, an eye operation is necessary.
Myopic choroidal neovascularizations
The myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) is a high myopia paired with newly formed but diseased blood vessels. As a result of pathological changes in the eye, small cracks form between the vein and retina, which are also known as lacquer cracks. Laser therapy or intravitreal injection are used to treat mCNV. For more information on the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatments, read on at Myopic CNV .
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